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Geography, Climate

Moscow city center has the following geographic coordinates: latitude 55 -45 degrees North and longitude 37 -37 degrees East. Moscow occupies a territory of 994 square kilometers. In accordance with official information there are 8,6 million inhabitants in Moscow. Territory of the city is divided into 10 administrative areas, which in their turn are divided into 128 districts.

The city is situated 150 meters above sea level, with relative excess of 30-35 meters above Moscow river level. 30% of the city territory is occupied by Moscow river valley. Moscow river is the main water artery of the city and crosses it from North-West to South-East. The length of the river within city limits is nearly 80 kilometers.

Moscow is situated between latitude 55-56 degrees North and longitude 37-38 degrees East on Middle Russia Height in between Oka and Volga rivers. Moscow is the most northern mega polis.

Moscow climate is moderate continental. Too cold or too hot weather is not typical for Moscow, but deviations happen quite often. Long thaws happen in December and in summer hot weather changes for long cold spells and incessant rains. On the average there are 194 days with temperatures above zero and 103 days with temperatures below zero. The sun shines 1568 hours per year.

For the last 5 years average quantity of precipitation is 760 mm, during these years maximum precipitation happened in August and October and minimal in April. In Moscow fogs happen all the year round, but in June, September and October they happen more often.


History
Economy
Culture and Science

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History

The first mention of Moscow in chronicles dates back to1147. This is a starting date for Moscow chronology. Suzdal prince Yuri Dolgoruky is officially considered to be the founder of Moscow. Formation of Moscow state was continued by such prominent Moscow princes and tsars as Andrei Bogolubsky, Ivan Kalita, Ivan Krasny, Dmitry Donskoy, Ivan Grozny, Boris Godunov, Mikhail Fedorovich and many others.

Since that time for more than 8 centuries Moscow has continued rapid growth. In spite of numerous enemy raids, which burned the city to ashes, the city revived once and again. After some time Moscow turned into one of the biggest cities in the world. Most favorable location of Moscow made for its supremacy over other cities of raising Russia. From the very beginning territorial development was determined by the need for reliable defense. Nomadic hordes constantly threatened Moscow from South and East, polish and Lithuanian conquers from West. Exactly at that time on the approaches to Moscow appeared famous castles-monasteries such as Simonov, Spaso-Andronnikov, Novodevichiy Convent.

Moscow state quickly gains power after the victory on Kulikovo Field in 1380 and "Ugra Standing" in 1480, which ended Tatar Mongolian yoke. In 15-th century Moscow excelled London, Prague and other largest cities of Europe by the size of its territory and number of population. After abolition of serfdom in1863 Moscow growth speed increased and it turned into the largest trade-industrial center. There were more than 20 thousand trade-industrial enterprises in Moscow at the end of the 19-th century.


Economy

Moscow industry was mainly represented by textile, construction, woodworks, food, paper, leather, and machine making plants. During first ten years of the 20-th century Moscow industry reached high level of concentration. Period of industrial growth was marked by penetration of foreign capital into the Russian industry. All chemical and electrical plants in Moscow were owned by foreign capital (mainly German).

After the 1917 revolution different sectors of machine making industry started growing rapidly. This growth stimulated development of metal cutting industry.

Virtually from scratch were created auto-making, radio technical, instrument-making industries. At the very same time Moscow kept its position in consumer good making.

At present Moscow is the largest economic, political and scientific center of Russia. There are many big enterprises of various branches of industry on Moscow territory. They belong to black and color metals, light and food industries.

Against a background of industrial production reduction in Moscow, recently volume of commercial services provided by banks, joint-stock companies, raw material and stock exchanges has increased.
Moscow is the leader by number and rating of commercial structures. There are over 1000 commercial banks in Moscow that is 40% of all of the banks of Russia. Moscow financial and stock sectors organize financial and commercial activity for 90% of Russian territory.

Foreign economic ties of the city are also expanding. On the basis of scientific and technical agreements Moscow has business contacts with the largest cities of the world such as Berlin, Warsaw, Vienna, Dusseldorf, Montreal, Peking, Tokyo, Saul, Helsinki and others. As a result long-term, large-scale economic development projects are implemented. These projects influence Russian economy as a whole.



Culture and Science

Moscow is also cultural and scientific center of Russia. There is Russian Academy of Science and its 90 scientific institutions in Moscow. There are also 78 scientific research establishments and specialized academies of science. Such Moscow theatres as Bolshoi, Maliy, Khudozhestvenny, theatre named after Vakhtfngov, Taganka Theatre are known worldwide. Tretiakov Gallery, Pushkin Museum collections of paintings, sculpture and graphics can compete with collections of many famous museums of the world. At present there are 72 theatres, 109 cinema theatres, 31-concert hall, 78 museums and 142 exhibition complexes in Moscow.

Moscow is the biggest educational center of the country. In Moscow there are 31 university and 19 academies among 85 higher educational establishments including such well known establishments as Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Russian Peoples Friendship University in Moscow, Moscow Technical University named after N.E. Bauman, Moscow Medical Academy named after I.M. Sechenov.

For many centuries Moscow is the center of Russian culture. There are famous monuments of history and architecture of world importance such as the Kremlin, New Maidens Convent, Pokrov in Fili Church and many others. Reconstituted were: Christ the Savior Cathedral, which became the cathedral church of the city, Voskresenskie Gates of the Kremlin with Iverskaya Holy Mother Church and Icon of Kazan Holy Mother Church on the Red Square. A great number of historic monuments are being reconstructed. Many things are done to make the city comfortable for Muscovites and guests of the city. The authorities create new pedestrian zones, open new hotels, cafes and restaurants. Big festivals, competitions and different international contests are regularly held in Moscow.

There is a big chance, that who visited Moscow once would like to visit it once again. Moscow is rightly considered to be one of the most beautiful cities of the world.



 
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